Overview

Title: Solidarity collection
Call Number: Coll106
Creator: Solidarity (Polish labor organization)
Dates: 1989-1990
Size: 4 boxes (7.5 linear feet)
Language: Polish, English
Abstract: The Solidarity collection contains political memorabilia and newspapers from the senate and parliamentary campaigns of the Polish Solidarity movement in 1989. The collection includes hundreds of posters, handouts, leaflets, and ephemera.
Citation: Solidarity collection, Collection 106, Special Collections, University of Maryland, Baltimore County (Baltimore, MD).

Administrative/Biographical Note

In the 1970s and early 1980s, Polish blue-collar workers embarked on a series of mass protests against the country’s communist regime. In large measure, these early protests were a response to widespread governmental corruption and a failing economy. The government’s announcement, in December of 1970, of increases in food prices put a further strain on an already heavily burdened citizenry and set in motion a series of events that led to the formation in 1980 of the Solidarity Movement. The early actions and protests in Poland represented a milestone in the development of group cohesion and consciousness among disparate groups of Polish workers. The events laid the groundwork for the 1980 worker strikes at the Gdansk Shipyard, wherein workers, led by electrician Lech Walesa, demanded higher pay, more rights, and called for the formation of independent trade unions. The “Solidarity” trade union, which was the first nationwide workers’ organization not controlled by the Communist party, grew out of the Gdansk strikes. Solidarity eventually broadened its scope to encompass a call for relaxation of censorship, new rights for the church, the freeing of political prisoners, and improvements in the country’s health service.

When martial law was declared by the Polish government in December of 1981, the Solidarity union and its affiliated organizations were banned. They remained officially illegal until early 1989 when they helped bring about semi-free elections. These elections were the first time that non-Communist Party candidates were allowed to appear on Polish ballots. Solidarity secured this concession following negotiations—known as the Round Table Talks-- between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition. The elections were an overwhelming success for Solidarity and by the end of August of 1989 a Solidarity-led coalition government was in place. In December of 1990 Lech Walesa was elected President of Poland.

Visual, print, and broadcast media played a significant role in the Solidarity Movement. The artwork of the Solidarity movement, particularly the posters and handouts created by the Polish Poster School (a mid-to-late twentieth century approach/school of art that combined the aesthetics of painting with the succinctness and simple metaphor of the poster) were a pivotal aspect of the Solidarity movement’s success. Posters from this school, particularly the iconic work by graphic designer Jerzy Janiszewski, who created a style of writing known as Solidaric that features a red and white Polish flag growing up from the “n” in the word “Solidarnosc,” (intended to represent individual people united in a common cause) as well as the work of Tomasz Sarnecki, whose poster featuring an image of Gary Cooper from the 1952 film “High Noon” and the phrase “High Noon, June 4, 1989,” along with the work of many other artists comprise a powerful part of Solidarity’s legacy and were critical to the movement’s success.

Just as visual media played an important role in Solidarity’s eventual overthrow of Poland’s communist regime, print and other news media also were fundamental to the movement’s accomplishments. In addition to Solidarity’s own newspaper, Solidarnosic (which was initially printed on presses in the Gdansk shipyard), by the mid-1980s the movement produced over 500 underground publications and broadcast political messages over pirate radio stations including Solidarity Radio. Well into the late 1980s, English and Polish Language newspapers, such as The Warsaw Voice and Gazeta Wyborcza (The Election Gazette) which were printed and distributed in Poland, were important and vital means for informing, inspiring, and empowering Solidarity’s members and the Polish citizenry as a whole.


Scope & Content

Arrangement

The Solidarity collection has been divided into six series:

Series I. Posters

  1. Political and campaign posters
  2. Senate candidate campaign posters

Series II. Political cartoons

    Series III. Periodicals

    1. The Warsaw Voice
    2. Polish language newspapers

    Series IV. Handouts

      Series V. Ephemera

        Series VI. Exhibit materials

          Note

          The Solidarity collection includes political memorabilia and newspapers from the Polish Solidarity movement senate and parliamentary campaigns of 1989 and is 7.5 linear feet. The collection consists chiefly of posters and newspapers, but also includes handouts and printed ephemera from the monumental 1989 elections.

          The collection is divided into six series, primarily based on format. Series I contains nearly 200 posters, and is divided into two sub-series. The posters in sub-series I.A. are largely materials related to the Solidarity movement as a whole. In addition, this sub-series contains posters designed to encourage citizens to vote in the 1989 elections. The posters vary in size and style, some exemplifying the Polish Poster School (a mid to late twentieth century approach that combined the aesthetics of painting with the succinctness and simple metaphor of the poster).

          The posters in sub-series I.B. depict individual senate and parliamentary candidates. These posters are uniform in style and color and all include a photograph of the candidates posing with Lech Walesa.

          Series II includes Solidarity-themed political cartoons. The series is comprised of (10) 14 ¼” x 10 ¼” black and white posters printed on white cardstock drawn by the artist Chodovowski and a large collection of 8 ½ x 11 cartoons by Agnieszka I. Adi.

          Series III is comprised of editions of Polish newspapers published during 1988 and 1989 and contains two sub-series. Sub-series II.A. contains issues of the English-language paper, The Warsaw Voice. Sub-series II.B. is made up of copies of the Polish-language paper Gazeta Wyborcza as well as single issues of Tygodnik Solidarnosc, Samorzadna, Rzeczpospolita, Zwrotnica, and Niespodzianka Dziekujemy, all of which are Polish-language newspapers.

          Series IV includes election-related handouts, instructional voting materials, and individual candidate materials. The material in this series ranges in size from 6” x 8 ½” to 8 ½” x 11” and is housed in three folders according to category (political handouts, instructional voting materials, and handouts for individual senate candidates).

          The bulk of Series V is housed in a single folder that contains a variety of Solidarity-themed postage stamps, stickers, postcards, handouts. In addition, this series includes a white plastic shopping bag with the word “Solidarnosc” (Solidarity) printed in red, which is in a separate folder. Series V also contains a hand-written, over-sized Solidarity candidate speaking engagement scheduling calendar, which tracked events leading up to the Spring 1989 elections that is housed with the political posters in the map drawers.

          The material in Series VI is contained in one folder and relates to a 1990 exhibit of the Solidarity materials in the UMBC Library Gallery entitled, “Solidarity and The Polish Elections.”


          Provenance Information

          Provenance and Acquisition Information

          Includes accession MSS 1989-01. The Solidarity collection came to UMBC’s Albin O. Kuhn Library and Gallery Special Collections as a gift from the Solidarity Central Committee, by way of UMBC History Professor Colin B. Burke. Professor Burke gathered the materials while 'on the ground' in Warsaw, Poland during the Polish soft revolution. He was able to safely get the materials out of the country, and subsequently donated them to UMBC. All of the materials arrived in a single accession in August of 1989.

          Processing Note

          The Solidarity collection was donated in 1989 and remained unprocessed until the Fall of 2012 when processing was undertaken by graduate student Theresa Donnelly under the supervision of Special Collections Librarian Susan Graham. Processing was completed and a finding aid written by Theresa Donnelly in February, 2013.

          Descriptive Rules Used

          Describing Archives: a Content Standard (DACS)

          Archives Processing Manual: Description (2015): The processing manual used in Special Collections for all descriptive platforms, including PastPerfect.


          Access & Use

          Finding Aids

          Finding Aid available.

          Finding Aid: http://library.umbc.edu/speccoll/findingaids/coll106.php

          Access Conditions

          No restrictions.

          Conditions Governing Reproductions and Use

          Reproductions allowed for research purposes. Copyright maintained by the creator.


          Subject Headings

          Creators

          Solidarity (Polish labor organization)

          Burke, Colin B., 1936-

          Subjects

          Walesa, Lech, 1943-

          Poland

          Labor unions


          Series Description & Container List

          1. Series I. Posters

            Date: 1989

            Extent: 4.5 linear feet

            Description: This series contains posters created for the 1989 Solidarity parliamentary and senate elections. There are two sub-series.

            1. Sub-series I.A. Political and campaign posters

              Date: 1989

              Extent: 41 items (4.5 linear feet)

              Description: This series is organized by poster size.

              1. Folder Title/Description Date Box # Folder # Additional Info.
                Poster-001: SdRP 1989 1

                Poster-002: Pamietaj zwolennicy reform za nie tylko w opozycji…Andrzej Wieczorkiewicz 1989 1

                Poster-003: Solidarnosc 1989 1

                Poster-004: Kandydaci Warszawskiego Komitetu Obywatelskiego…[list of candidates] 1989 1

                Poster-005A: Terminarz Spotkan Jacka Kuronia... (page 1 of 2) 1989 1

                Poster-005B: Terminarz Spotkan Jacka Kuronia... (page 2 of 2) 1989 1

                Poster-006A: Terminarz Spotkan Jacka Kuronia... (page 1 of 2) 1989 1

                Poster-006B: Terminarz Spotkan Jacka Kuronia... (page 2 of 2) 1989 1

                Poster-007: Wybierz 35% Solidarnosc sprawdzimy sie w 100% 1989 1

                Poster-008: Wybierz 35% Solidarnosc sprawdzimy sie w 100% 1989 1

                Poster-009: Wybierz 35% Solidarnosc sprawdzimy sie w 100% 1989 1

                Poster-010: Komitet Obywatelski Solidarnosc Zapraszamy! 1989 2

                Poster-011: Solidarnosc Informacja 1989 2

                Poster-012: Chodzcie z nami! 1989 2

                Poster-013: O co chodzi 4.vi?...Solidarnosc 1989 2

                Poster-014: O co chodzi 4.vi?...Solidarnosc 1989 2

                Poster-015: O co chodzi 4.vi?...Solidarnosc 1989 2

                Poster-016: O co chodzi 4.vi?... Warszawski Komitet Obywatelski 1989 2

                Poster-017: O co chodzi 4.vi?... Warszawski Komitet Obywatelski 1989 2

                Poster-018: Wybory '89 Solidarnosc [green letters with red flowers] 1989 2

                Poster-019: Wybory '89 Solidarnosc [green letters with red flowers] 1989 2

                Poster-020: Wybory '89 Solidarnosc [green letters with red flowers] 1989 2

                Poster-021: Soldiarnosc - nie do zdarcia 1989 3

                Poster-022: Soldiarnosc - nie do zdarcia 1989 3

                Poster-023: Dziekujemy Solidarnosc 1989 3

                Poster-024: Aleksander Olaszewski… 1989 3

                Poster-025: Wybierz swoja polske Solidarnosc 1989 3

                Poster-026: Glosuj na Solidarnosc Lech Walesa Wybory '89 1989 3

                Poster-027: Glosuj na Solidarnosc [children posting bills] 1989 3

                Poster-028: Glosuj z nami [crowd of people] 1989 3

                Poster-029: Solidarnosc glosuj 4 czerwca! [children sleeping] 1989 4

                Poster-030: Bravo Lech [mustache] 1989 4

                Poster-031: Glosuj z nami [crowd of people] 1989 4

                Poster-032: Warszawski Komitet Obywatelski Solidarnosc 1989 4

                Poster-033: Jozef Wleklinski… 1989 4

                Poster-034: Glosuj na Solidarnosc Lech Walesa Wybory '89 1989 5

                Poster-035: Zeby Polska byla Polska 2+2… 1989 5

                Poster-036: Sam Rzad to nie Wszystko! 1989 5

                Poster-037: Solidarnosc w samo poludnie 4 czerwca 1989 [Gary Cooper from High Noon] 1989 5

                Poster-038: Solidarnosc [multiple outlines of Solidarnosc; scissors] 1989 5

                Poster-039: Program Wyborczy Komitet Obywatelskiego "Solidarnosc" 1989 5

                Poster-040: Solidarnosc…[definition of Solidarity] 1989 5

                Poster-041: Wybierz Jacka Kuronia 1989 6

            2. Sub-series I.B. Senate candidate campaign posters

              Date: 1989

              Extent: 176 items

              Description: This series is organized alphabetically by candidate name.

              1. Folder Title/Description Date Box # Folder # Additional Info.
                Poster-042: Jacka Ambroziaka (Ambroziak, Jack) 1989 7

                Poster-043: Andrzeja Arendarskiego(Arendarski, Andrzej) 1989 7

                Poster-044: Piotra Baumgarta(Baumgart, Piotr) 1989 7

                Poster-045: Bednarkiewicz, Maciej (Macieja Bednarkiewicza) 1989 7

                Poster-046: Bembinski, Stefan (Stefana Bembinskiego) 1989 7

                Poster-047: Bernatowicz, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Bernatowicza) 1989 7

                Poster-048: Beszto-Borowski, Jan (Jana Beszte-Borowskiego) 1989 7

                Poster-049: Bialkoeski, Grzegorz (Grzegorza Bialkowskiego) 1989 7

                Poster-050: Bielecki, Jan Krzysztof (Jana Krzysztofa Bieleckiego) 1989 7

                Poster-051: Bilicki, Edmund (Edmunda Bilickiego) 1989 7

                Poster-052: Bojarski, Wlodzimierz (Wlodzimierza Bojarskiego) 1989 8

                Poster-053: Brzezinski, Kazimierz (Kazimierza Brzezinskiego) 1989 8

                Poster-054: Brzuzy, Richard (Ryszarda Brzuzy) 1989 8

                Poster-055: Bugaj, Ryszard (Ryszarda Bugaja) 1989 8

                Poster-056: Bujak, Jack (Jacka Bujaka) 1989 8

                Poster-057: Celinski, Andrzeijeg (Andrzeja Celinskiego) 1989 8

                Poster-058: Chelkowski, August Jan (Augusta Jana Chelkowskiego) 1989 8

                Poster-059: Chodkowski, Jan (Jana Chodkowskiego) 1989 8

                Poster-060: Chrobak, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Chrobaka) 1989 8

                Poster-061: Chrupek, Pawel (Pawla Chrupka) 1989 8

                Poster-062: Cieslo, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Ciesle) 1989 9

                Poster-063: Dabrowski, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Dabrowskiego) 1989 9

                Poster-064: Dankowska, Adela (Adele Dankowska) 1989 9

                Poster-065: Dembinski, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Dembinskiego) 1989 9

                Poster-066: Dietel, Jerzy (Jerzego Dietla) 1989 9

                Poster-067: Dmochowska, Maria (Marie Dmochowska) 1989 9

                Poster-068: Drela, Zbigniew (Zbigniewa Drele) 1989 9

                Poster-069: Dudy, Roman (Romana Dude) 1989 9

                Poster-070: Dyner, Jerzy (Jerzego Dynera) 1989 9

                Poster-071: Dziubek, Mark (Marka Dziubka) 1989 9

                Poster-072: Fenrych, Andrzej (Andrzeja Fenrycha) 1989 10

                Poster-073: Bolleslaw, Fleszar (Fleszara Boleslawa) 1989 10

                Poster-074: Gabryszewski, Andrzej Waldemar (Andrzeja Waldemara Gabryszewskieggo) 1989 10

                Poster-075: Ganowicz, Riszard (Ryszarda Ganowicza) 1989 10

                Poster-076: Geremek, Bronislaw (Bronislawa Geremka) 1989 10

                Poster-077: Gil, Jerzy (Jerzego Gila) 1989 10

                Poster-078: Glapinski, Andrzej (Andrzeja Glapinskiego) 1989 10

                Poster-079: Goralczyk, Jozef Andrzej (Jozefa Andrzeja Goralczka) 1989 10

                Poster-080: Grzeskowiak, Alicja (Alicje Grzeskowiak) 1989 10

                Poster-081: Gutowski, Jozef (Jozefa Gutowskiego) 1989 10

                Poster-082: Hejmanowska, Stefania (Stefanie Hejmanowska) 1989 11

                Poster-083: Helak, Ryszard (Ryszardo Helaka) 1989 11

                Poster-084: Hoffman, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Hoffmana) 1989 11

                Poster-085: Holoubek, Gustaw (Gustawa Holoubka) 1989 11

                Poster-086: Iwan, Ryszard (Ryszarda Iwana) 1989 11

                Poster-087: Janas, Zbigniew (Zbigniewa Janasa) 1989 11

                Poster-088: Janowski, Gabriel (Gabriela Janowskiego) 1989 11

                Poster-089: Janowski, Gabriel (Gabriela Janowskiego) 1989 11

                Poster-090: Jozefiak, Cezareg (Cezarego Jozefiaka) 1989 11

                Poster-091: Jungiewicz, Jozef (Jozefa Jungiewicza) 1989 11

                Poster-092: Jurek, Mark (Marka Jurka) 1989 12

                Poster-093: Juszkiewicz, Rysharol (Ryszardla Juszkiewicza) 1989 12

                Poster-094: Kapes, Jaroslaw (Jaroslawa Kapse) 1989 12

                Poster-095: Kern, Andrzej (Andrzeja Kerna) 1989 12

                Poster-096: Klopotowski, Tadeusz (Tadeusza Klopotowskiego) 1989 12

                Poster-097: Kosmalski, Andrzej (Andrzeja Kosmalskiego) 1989 12

                Poster-098: Kowala, Mariana (Mariana Kowala) 1989 12

                Poster-099: Kowalczyk, Jozef (Jozefa Kowalczyka) 1989 12

                Poster-100: Kowalczyk, Tadeusz (Tadeusza Kowalczyka) 1989 12

                Poster-101: Kowalski, Wieslaw (Wieslawa Kowalskiego) 1989 12

                Poster-102: Koziol, Lech (Lecha Koziola) 1989 13

                Poster-103: Kozlowski, Krzysztoja (Krzysztofa Kozlowskiego) 1989 13

                Poster-104: Kozlowski, Stefan (Stefana Kozlowskiego) 1989 13

                Poster-105: Kralczynski, Andrzej (Andrzeja Kralczynskiego) 1989 13

                Poster-106: Krasnodebski, Karol (Karola Krasnodebskiego) 1989 13

                Poster-107: Kraszewski, Ryszard (Ryszarda Kraszewskiego) 1989 13

                Poster-108: Krauz, Stanislaw (Stanislawe Krauz) 1989 13

                Poster-109: Kruk, Erwin (Erwina Kruka) 1989 13

                Poster-110: Krzanowski, Maciej (Macieja Krzanowskiego) 1989 13

                Poster-111: Kuratowska, Zofia (Zofie Kuratowska) 1989 13

                Poster-112: Kuron, Jack (Jacka Kuronia) 1989 14

                Poster-113: Kuron, Jack (Jacka Kuronia) 1989 14

                Poster-114: Kuron, Jack (Jacka Kuronia) 1989 14

                Poster-115: Kuron, Jack (Jacka Kuronia) 1989 14

                Poster-116: Kurzajewski, Czeslaw Kazimierz (Czeslawa Kazimierza Kurzajewskiego) 1989 14

                Poster-117: Laczkowskiego, Pawla 1989 14

                Poster-118: Langowska, Grazyna (Grazyne Langowska) 1989 14

                Poster-119: Lapicki, Andrzeij (Andrzeja Lapickiego) 1989 14

                Poster-120: Lech, Zbigniew Miroslaw (Zbigniewa Miroslawa Lecha) 1989 14

                Poster-121: Lipko, Wieslaw (Wieslawa Lipka) 1989 14

                Poster-122: Lipski, Jan Jozef (Jana Jozefa Lipskiego) 1989 15

                Poster-123: Lipski, Jan Jozef (Jana Jozefa Lipskiego) 1989 15

                Poster-124: Jana Jozefa Lipskiego 1989 15

                Poster-125: Litynski, Jan (Jana Litynskiego) 1989 15

                Poster-126: Liwak, Wladyslaw (Wladyslawa Liwaka) 1989 15

                Poster-127: Lopuszanski, Jan Edward (Jana Edwarda Lopuszanskiego) 1989 15

                Poster-128: Lubieniecki, Jozef (Josefa Lubienieckiego) 1989 15

                Poster-129: Lupina, Zygmunt (Zygmunta Lupine) 1989 15

                Poster-130: Machalski, Andrzej (Andrzeja Machalskiego) 1989 15

                Poster-131: Majdanski, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Majdanskiego) 1989 15

                Poster-132: Malachowski, Aleksander (Aleksandra Malachowskiego) 1989 16

                Poster-133: Michalak, Henryk (Henryka Michalaka) 1989 16

                Poster-134: Michnik, Adam (Adama Michnika) 1989 16

                Poster-135: Milkowski, Andrzeij (Andrzeja Milkowskiego) 1989 16

                Poster-136: Modzelewski, Karol (Karola Modzelewskiego) 1989 16

                Poster-137: Mokreg, Wlodzimierz (Wlodzimierza Mokrego) 1989 16

                Poster-138: Niewiarowski, Ireneusz (Ireneusza Niewiarowskiego) 1989 16

                Poster-139: Nowicki, Zdzislaw (Zdzislawa Nowickiego) 1989 16

                Poster-140: Obertaniec, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Obertanca) 1989 16

                Poster-141: Orel, Jerzy (Jerzego Orla) 1989 16

                Poster-142: Osmanczyk, Edmund Jan (Edmunda Jana Osmanczyka) 1989 17

                Poster-143: Padykula, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Padykule) 1989 17

                Poster-144: Panka, Waleriana (Waleriana Panke) 1989 17

                Poster-145: Paszynksi, Aleksander (Aleksandra Paszynskiego) 1989 17

                Poster-146: Pawlowski, Krzysztof (Krzysztofa Pawlowskiego) 1989 17

                Poster-147: Pieta, Irenewsza (Ireneusza Piete) 1989 17

                Poster-148: Pietkiewicz, Jerzy (Jerzego Pietkiewicza) 1989 17

                Poster-149: Pietrzak, Jerzy Kazimierz (Jeszego Kamimierza Pietrzaka) 1989 17

                Poster-150: Pigon, Zenon (Zenona Pigonia) 1989 17

                Poster-151: Pilarski, Bohdan (Bohdana Pilarskiego) 1989 17

                Poster-152: Piotrowski, Lesek (Lezska Piotrowskiego) 1989 18

                Poster-153: Polmanski, Piotr (Piotra Polmanskiego) 1989 18

                Poster-154: Poltorak, Maciej (Macieja Poltoraka) 1989 18

                Poster-155: Pszczolkowski, Benedyk (Benedykta Pszczolkowskiego) 1989 18

                Poster-156: Puter, Krysztof (Krysztofa Putre) 1989 18

                Poster-157: Radziwill, Anna (Anne Radziwill) 1989 18

                Poster-158: Radziwill, Anna (Anne Radziwill) 1989 18

                Poster-159: Radziwill, Anna (Anne Radziwill) 1989 18

                Poster-160: Regulski, Jerzy (Jerzego Regulskiego) 1989 18

                Poster-161: Reieff, Ryszard (Ryszarda Reiffa) 1989 18

                Poster-162: Robakowski, Bogdan (Bogdana Robakowskiego) 1989 19

                Poster-163: Rokicki, Zbigniew (Zbigniewa Rokickiego) 1989 19

                Poster-164: Romaszewski, Zbigniew (Zbigniewa Romanszewskiego) 1989 19

                Poster-165: Rostek, Kazimierz {Kazimierza Rostka) 1989 19

                Poster-166: Rozek, Janusz (Janusza Rozka) 1989 19

                Poster-167: Rusznica, Jan (Jana Rusznice) 1989 19

                Poster-168: Salata, Josef (Jozefa Salate) 1989 19

                Poster-169: Scieszko, Tadeusz (Tadeusza Scieszko) 1989 19

                Poster-170: Seferowicz, Elzbietta Maria (Elzbiete Marie Seferowicz) 1989 19

                Poster-171: Sielicka-Gracka, Maria (Marie Sielicka-Gracka) 1989 19

                Poster-172: Sienkiewicz, Henryk (Henryka Sienkiewicza) 1989 20

                Poster-173: Sierzant, Tadeusz (Tadeusz Sierzanta) 1989 20

                Poster-174: Sikora, Andrzej (Andrzeja Sikore) 1989 20

                Poster-175: Sliszy, Josef (Josefa Slisza) 1989 20

                Poster-176: Sobierajski, Czeslawa Stanislaw (Czeslawa Stanislawa Sobierajskiego) 1989 20

                Poster-177: Sobieski, Francisz (Franciszka Sobieskiego) 1989 20

                Poster-178: Sobieszezanski, Stefan Boguslaw (Stefana Boguslawa Sobierszezanskiego) 1989 20

                Poster-179: Staniszewska, Grazyna (Grazyna Staniszewska) 1989 20

                Poster-180: Stanowski, Adam (Adarna Stanowskiego) 1989 20

                Poster-181: Steinhoff, Janusz Wojciech (Janusza Wojciecha Steinhoffa) 1989 20

                Poster-182: Stelrnachowski, Andrzej (Andrzeja Stelrnachowskiego) 1989 21

                Poster-183: Stepniak, Henryk Janusz (Henryka Janusza Stepniaka) 1989 21

                Poster-184: Stornrna, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Stornrne) 1989 21

                Poster-185: Suchocka, Hanna (Hanne Suchocka) 1989 21

                Poster-186: Szczepkowski, Andrzej (Andrzeja Szczepkowskiego) 1989 21

                Poster-187: Szczypiorski, Andrzej (Andrzeja Szczypiorskiego) 1989 21

                Poster-188: Szyrnanderski, Jack (Jacka Szyrnanderskiego) 1989 21

                Poster-189: Szyrnanski, Leonard (Leonarda Szyrnanskiego) 1989 21

                Poster-190: Tarnowski, Mieczyslaw (Mieczyslawa Tarnowskiego) 1989 21

                Poster-191: Tornkiewicz, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Tornkiewicza) 1989 21

                Poster-192: Trochimiuk, Mieczyslaw (Mieczyslawa Trochimiuka) 1989 22

                Poster-193: Twarog, Boleslaw (Boleslawa Twaroga) 1989 22

                Poster-194: Urbanowicz, Anna (Anne Urbanowicz) 1989 22

                Poster-195: Ustasiak, Mieczyslaw (Mieczyslawa Ustasiaka) 1989 22

                Poster-196: Wajda, Andrzej (Andrzeja Wajde) 1989 22

                Poster-197: Wegloswski, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Weglowskiego) 1989 22

                Poster-198: Wenda, Edward Joachim (Edwarda Joachima Wende) 1989 22

                Poster-199: Wielowieyski, Andrzej (Andrzeja Wielowieyskiego) 1989 22

                Poster-200: Eugeniusza Wilkowskiego 1989 22

                Poster-201: Wilek, Henryk Zbigniew (Henryka Zbigniewa Wilka) 1989 22

                Poster-202: Wilek, Henryk Zbigniew (Henryka Zbigniewa Wilka) 1989 23

                Poster-203: Bronislaw, Wilek (Bronislawa Wilka) 1989 23

                Poster-204: Wojtczak, Michal (Michala Wojtczaka) 1989 23

                Poster-205: Wujec, Henryk (Henryka Wujca) 1989 23

                Poster-206: Wujec, Henryk (Henryka Wujca) 1989 23

                Poster-207: Wyrowinski, Jan (Jana Wyrowinskiego) 1989 23

                Poster-208: Zalewska, Teresa (Terese Zalewska) 1989 23

                Poster-209: Wieslawa Zajaczkowskiego 1989 23

                Poster-210: Zawislak, Andrzej (Andrzeja Zawislaka) 1989 23

                Poster-211: Zdrada, Jerzy (Jerzego Zdrade) 1989 23

                Poster-212: Zielinski, Tadeusz (Tadeusza Zielinskiego) 1989 24

                Poster-213: Ziotkowski, Janusz (Janusza Ziolkowskiego) 1989 24

                Poster-214: Zlakowski, Zenon (Zenona Zlakowskiego) 1989 24

                Poster-215: Zurowski, Antoni (Antoniego Zurowskiego) 1989 24

                Poster-216: Zurowski, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Zurowskiego) 1989 24

                Poster-217: Zutkowski, Stanislaw (Stanislawa Zytkowskiego) 1989 24

          2. Series II. Political cartoons

            Date: 1989

            Extent: .5 box (.25 linear feet)

            Description: This series contains two portfolios of political cartoons. Arranged alphabetically by the cartoonist's name.

            1. Folder Title/Description Date Box # Folder # Additional Info.
              Agnieszka I. Adi 1989 1 Portfolio 1

              Chodovoski 1989 1 Portfolio 2

          3. Series III. Periodicals

            Date: 1988-1989

            Extent: 2 boxes (2.5 linear feet)

            Description: This series contains Polish newspapers published during 1988 and 1989 and is organized into two sub-series.

            1. Sub-series III.A. The Warsaw Voice

              Date: 1988-1989

              Extent: 1 box

              Description: This series is organized by date.

              1. Folder Title/Description Date Box # Folder # Additional Info.
                The Warsaw Voice, no. 3. November 6, 1988. 1988 1 1

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 4. November 13, 1988. 1 1

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 6. November 27, 1988. 1988 1 1

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 7. December 4, 1988. 1988 1 1

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 8. December 11, 1988. 1988 1 2

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 9. December 18, 1988. 1988 1 2

                The Warsaw Voice, no.10-1 (11). December 24, 1988-January 1, 1989. 1 2

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 2 (12). January 8, 1989. 1989 1 2

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 3 (13). January 15, 1989. 1989 1 3

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 4 (14). January 22, 1989. 1989 1 3

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 6 (16). February 5, 1989. 1989 1 3

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 7 (17). February 12, 1989. 1989 1 3

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 8 (18). February 19, 1989. 1989 1 4

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 9 (19). February 26, 1989. 1989 1 4

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 10 (20). March 5, 1989. 1989 1 4

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 11 (21). March 12, 1989 1989 1 4

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 12 (22). March 19, 1989. 1989 1 5

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 16 (26). April 16, 1989. 1989 1 5

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 18 (28). April 30, 1989. 1989 1 5

                The Warsaw Voice, no. 24 (34). June 11, 1989. 1989 1 5

            2. Sub-series III.B. Polish language newspapers

              Date: 1989

              Extent: 1 box

              Description: This series is organized by title and date.

              1. Folder Title/Description Date Box # Folder # Additional Info.
                Dziekujemy 1989 2 1

                Samorzadna Rzeczpospolita, no. 8. May 15, 1989. 1989 2 1

                Zwrotnica, May 1989. 1989 2 1

                Niespodzianka, no. 2. May 27, 1989. 1989 2 1

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 1 May 8, 1989. (4 copies) 1989 2 2

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 2. May 9, 1989. (3 copies) 1989 2 3

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no 3. May 10, 1989. 1989 2 3

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 4, May 11, 1989. 1989 2 3

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 5. May 12-14, 1989. (6 copies) 1989 2 4

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 6. May 15, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 5

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 7. May 16, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 5

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 8. May 17, 1989. 1989 2 5

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 9. May 18, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 6

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 10. May 19-21, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 6

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 11. May 22, 1989. ( 2 copies) 1989 2 6

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 12. May 23, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 7

                Gazeta Wyborcza no. 13. May 24-25, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 7

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no.14. May 26-28, 1989.(2 copies) 1989 2 7

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 15. May 29, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 8

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 16. May 30, 1989. ( 2 copies) 1989 2 8

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 17. May 31, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 8

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 18. June 1, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 9

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 19. June 2-4, 1989. (3 copies) 1989 2 9

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 20. June 5, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 9

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 21. June 6, 1989. ( 2 copies) 1989 2 10

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 22. June 7, 1989. (2 copies) 1989 2 10

                Gazeta Wyborcza, no. 23. June 8, 1989. ( 2 copies) 1989 2 10

                Tygodnik Solidarnosc, no. 2 (39). June 9, 1989. 1989 2 10

          4. Series IV. Handouts

            Date: 1988-1989

            Extent: .25 box

            Description: This series contains political handouts and voting materials from the Solidarity movement and is arranged by subject.

            1. Folder Title/Description Date Box # Folder # Additional Info.
              Political handouts 1988-89 3 1

              Instructional voting materials 1989 3 2

              Handouts for Senate Candidates 1989 3 3

          5. Series V. Ephemera

            Date: 1989

            Extent: .25 box

            1. Folder Title/Description Date Box # Folder # Additional Info.
              Printed Solidarity ephemera (see Oversized folder 1) 1989 3 4

              Solidarity shopping bag 1989 3 5

          6. Series VI. Exhibit materials

            Date: 1989-1990

            Extent: .25 box

            Description: This series contains materials from the 1990 UMBC Library Gallery Solidarity exhibit, "Solidarity and the Polish Elections."

            1. Folder Title/Description Date Box # Folder # Additional Info.
              UMBC Solidarity exhibit materials 1990 3 6

          7. Oversized

            Date: 1989

            Extent: 1 calendar

            Description: Items inappropriate for the standard document box have been removed to oversized boxes. The folder title from which the item was removed is used and the original location is listed in parentheses.

            1. Folder Title/Description Date Box # Folder # Additional Info.
              Solidarity Events Schedule (from Series V, Box 3, Folder 4) Oversized Folder 1 Calendar 1


          Bibliography

          NSZZ "Solidarność" website. Accessed December 17, 2015. http://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/en/.

          Poland After 1945 collections, Hoover Institution. Accessed December 17, 2015. http://www.hoover.org/library-archives/collections/poland-after-1945.

          Solidarity and related materials collection, Houghton Library, Harvard University.

          "Making the History of 1989" online exhibit. The Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University. Accessed December 17, 2015. http://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/exhibits/intro/poland.

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